E450 – Diphosphates

E450 InfoCons Consumer Protection

What are E 450 diphosphates?

Diphosphates or E 450 are a class of food additives consisting of: disodium diphosphate (i), trisodium diphosphate (ii), tetrasodium diphosphate (iii), tetrapotassium diphosphate (v), dicalcium diphosphate (vi) and calcium dibasic diphosphate (vii) and dimagnesium diphosphate (ix).

Food additives E 450(i), E 450(ii), 450(iii), 450(v) can be used as acidity regulators, emulsifiers, emulsifying salt, humectants, bulking agents, sequestering agents, stabilisers and thickeners.

Food additive E 450 (vi) can also be used as an acidity regulator, emulsifier, emulsifying salt, curing agent, raising agent, sequestering agent, stabiliser and thickener.

Food additive E450 (vii) can be used as an acidity regulator, emulsifier, emulsifying salt, humectant, raising agent, sequestering agent, stabiliser.[i]

Food additive E 450 (ix) can be used as an acidity regulator, growth promoter, stabiliser.

E450 Food InfoCons Consumers Protection

What are the specifications set for diphosphates?

According to current legislation, diphosphates must have a certain composition and purity to be used in food. The table below shows the specifications laid down for them.

 

E 450 (i) DISODIUM DIPHOSPHATE

Synonyms

Disodium dibasic dibasic diphosphate; Disodium dibasic pyrophosphate; Sodium acid pyrophosphate; Disodium pyrophosphate

Chemical name: disodium diphosphate diacid

Chemical formula: Na2 H2 P2 O7

Molecular weight: 221.94

Composition

Contains not less than 95 % disodium diphosphate

Content not less than 63,0 % and not more than 64,5 % P2 O5

Description White powder or granules

Solubility Soluble in water

Purity
Loss on drying – Not more than 0,5 % (105 °C, 4 hours)

Water-insoluble matter – Not more than 1 % – Not more than 1

Fluorides – Not more than 10 mg/kg (expressed as fluorine)

Arsenic – Not more than 1 mg/kg

  Cadmium – Not more than 1 mg/kg

 Lead – Not more than 1 mg/kg

 Mercury- Not more than 1 mg/kg

 Aluminium – Not more than 200 mg/kg

E 450 (ii) TRISODIUM DIPHOSPHATE Synonyms: Trisodium pyrophosphate; Trisodium diphosphate monoacid; Trisodium pyrophosphate monoacid; Trisodium phosphate

Chemical formula

Monohydrate: Na3 HP2 O7 – H2 O

Anhydrous: Na3 HP2 O7

Molecular weight

Monohydrate: 261,95

Anhydrous: 243,93

Composition

Content not less than 95 % on the dried basis

Content not less than 57 % and not more than 59 % P2 O5

Solubility: White powder or granules, found in anhydrous or monohydrate form

Purity
Loss on ignition

Not more than 4,5 % on the anhydrous basis (450-550 °C).

Not more than 11,5 % on the monohydrate basis

Loss on drying

Not more than 0,5 % (105 °C, 4 hours) for the anhydrous form

Not more than 1,0 % (105 °C, 4 hours) for the monohydrate form

Water-insoluble matter – Not more than 0,2

Fluorides Not more than 10 mg/kg (expressed as fluorine)

Arsenic – Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium – Not more than 1 mg/kg

Lead – Not more than 1 mg/kg

Mercury – Not more than 1 mg/kg

E 450 (iii) TETRASODIC DIPHOSPHATE Synonyms: Tetrasodium pyrophosphate; Tetrasodium diphosphate; Tetrasodium phosphate

Chemical name : Tetrasodium diphosphate

Chemical formula

Anhydrous: Na4 P2 O7

Decahydrate: Na4 P2 O7 – 10H2 O

Molecular weight

Anhydrous: 265,94

Decahydrate: 446,09

Composition:

Content not less than 95 % of Na4P2O7 on the ignited basis

Content not less than 52,5 % and not more than 54,0 % P2O5

Description:

White or colourless crystals or white crystalline or granular powder. Decahydrate is slightly efflorescent in dry air

Purity
Loss on ignition

Not more than 0,5 % for anhydrous salt, not less than 38 % and not more than 42 % for decahydrate (105 °C, 4 hours, then 550 °C, 30 minutes)

Water-insoluble matter – Not more than 0,2

Fluorides – Not more than 10 mg/kg (expressed as fluorine)

Arsenic – Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium – Not more than 1 mg/kg

Lead – Not more than 1mg/kg

Mercury – Not more than 1 mg/kg

E 450 (v) TETRAPOTASIC DIPHOSPHATE Synonyms: Tetrapotassium pyrophosphate

Chemical name: Tetrapotassium diphosphate

Chemical formula: K4 P2 O7

Molecular weight: 330.34 (anhydrous)

Composition

Contains not less than 95 % (800 °C for 30 minutes)

Content not less than 42,0 % and not more than 43,7 % P2O5 on the anhydrous basis

Description: colourless crystals or white powder, very hygroscopic

Solubility: Soluble in water, insoluble in ethanol

Purity
Loss on ignition : Not more than 2 % (105 °C, 4 hours, then 550 °C, 30 minutes)

Water-insoluble substances : Not more than 0,2

Fluorides: Not more than 10 mg/kg (expressed as fluorine)

Arsenic – Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium – Not more than 1 mg/kg

Lead – Not more than 1 mg/kg

Mercury – Not more than 1 mg/kg

E 450 (vi) DICALCIUM DIPHOSPHATE Synonyms: Calcium pyrophosphate

Chemical name: Dicalcium diphosphate, Dicalcium pyrophosphate

Chemical formula: Ca2 P2 O7

Molecular weight: 254.12

Composition:

Contains not less than 96 % of

Content not less than 55 % and not more than 56 % P2O5

Description: white, fine, odourless powder

Purity
Loss on ignition: Not more than 1,5 % (800 °C ± 25 °C, 30 minutes)

Fluorides – Not more than 50 mg/kg (expressed as fluorine)

Arsenic – Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium – Not more than 1 mg/kg

Lead – Not more than 1 mg/kg

Mercury – Not more than 1 mg/kg

450 (vii) CALCIUM DIACID DIPHOSPHATE Synonyms: Calcium acid pyrophosphate; Monocalcium dibasic pyrophosphate

Chemical name: Calcium diphosphate diacid

Chemical formula: CaH2 P2 O7

Molecular weight: 215.97

Composition

Content not less than 90 % on the anhydrous basis

Content not less than 61 % and not more than 66 % P2O5

Description: white crystals or white powder

Purity
Acid-insoluble matter: Not more than 0,4 %.

Fluorides: Not more than 30 mg/kg (expressed as fluorine)

Arsenic – Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium – Not more than 1 mg/kg

Lead – Not more than 1 mg/kg

Mercury – Not more than 1 mg/kg

Aluminium

Not more than 800 mg/kg. Applicable until 31 March 2015.

Not more than 200 mg/kg. Applicable from 1 April 2015.

E 450 (ix) MAGNESIUM BIACID DIPHOSPHATE Synonyms: Magnesium acid pyrophosphate, biacid monomagnesium pyrophosphate, magnesium diphosphate, magnesium pyrophosphate

Chemical name: Monomagnesium diphosphate biacid

Chemical formula: MgH2 P2 O 7

Molecular weight: 200,25

Description: white crystals or white powder

Solubility: Slightly soluble in water, practically insoluble in ethanol

Purity
Loss on ignition

Maximum 12 % (800 °C, 0.5 hours)

Cadmium – Maximum 1 mg/kg

Lead – Maximum 1 mg/kg

Fluorides – Maximum (expressed as fluorine) 20 mg/kg

Aluminium – Maximum 50 mg/kg

Arsenic – Maximum 1 mg/kg

E450 Food InfoCons Consumers Protection

Which foods contain food additives E 450 ?

Food additives E450 i, ii, iii, v, vi, vii and ix may be used in foodstuffs separately or in combination with the following additives: E 338, E 339, E 340, E 341, E 343, E 451, E 452.

Food additives E450 may be added to the following foodstuffs according to the maximum level set in Regulation 1333/2018:

 

Food product Maximum level Restrictions/Exceptions:
Flour 15 000 Only flour with yeast
Taiței

 

2000
Dough 12000 the total amount of phosphates must not exceed the maximum level for E 338-45
Stuffed pasta fillings (ravioli and similar products) 2000
Bread and rolls 12 000 mg/kg, the maximum level is expressed as P2 O5 – Only refrigerated and pre-packaged yeast-based doughs used as a base for pizza, savoury quiche pies, tarts and similar products,
Processed fish and fishery products, including molluscs and crustaceans -5000mg/kg, Maximum level is expressed as P2 O5 , The maximum level applies to the sum of E450, E451 and E452 used individually or in combination
Processed cereal-based foods and baby foods for infants and young children as defined in Directive 2006/125/EC 5 000 mg/kg, Maximum level is expressed as P2 O5 , as residue, only biscuits and breadcrumbs
Food additives, other than carriers, in food additives 40 000 mg/kg individually or in combination in the preparation (expressed as P2 O5 ) preparations of dye E 163 anthocyanins
Food additives, including carriers in food enzymes 50 000 mg/kg (individually or in combination expressed as P2 O5

Maximum level in the final food product excluding beverages; quantum satis

Can be used as a carrier substance

 

According to Regulation (EU) No 298/2014, 450 (ix)- magnesium diphosphate biacid may be used in flour, doughs, noodles, fine bakery products but the total amount of phosphates must not exceed the maximum level for E 338-452.

 

E450 food additives can also be found in:

  • non-alcoholic flavoured drinks,

– UHT milk,

  • pasteurized cream, whipped cream, melted cheese,
  • candied fruit,
  • ice cream,
  • frozen potatoes,
  • alcoholic beverages,
  • dried cereals,
  • infusions of tea and herbs,
  • syrups,
  • biscuits
  • alcoholic beverages (excluding wine and beer),
  • soups and broths,
  • Chewing gum.

Are there any side effects from consuming E450 food additives?

Following the “Re-evaluation of phosphoric acid – phosphates – di-, tri- and polyphosphates (E 338-341, E 343, E 450-452) as food additives and the safety of their use”, the International Scientific Panel on Food Additives (JECFA) concluded that none of the phosphates are genotoxic in vitro or in vivo and that they are not carcinogenic. In addition, they pose no risk of reproductive or developmental toxicity.

The only significant adverse effects of phosphates in animal studies were nephrocalcinosis and tubulointerstitial nephropathy.

Although animal studies have reported that high phosphorus intake causes bone resorption or decreased bone formation, the group of researchers, felt that the observed effects on bone metabolism and bone mineralization in animals are not sufficiently well characterized to infer an association with high dietary phosphate intake.

JECFA has set a ‘Tolerable Upper Intake Level’ (UL) of 70 mg/kg body/day (expressed as phosphorus) for phosphates and polyphosphates, both naturally occurring in food but also ingested as food additives. [ii]

Why is it necessary to use E 450 additives?

Diphosphates are needed for their role as emulsifiers in confectionery, icings, whipped cream and some similar fat products.

In the manufacture of meat products, ice cream and cheese, they are used as buffering agents, metal sequestrants (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mg) and peptizing agents.

In doughs are added for viscosity regulation (especially tetrasodium diphosphate E450 iii).

They are used to prevent rancidity in pastry and confectionery products, they help to increase the oxidation stability of some fatty products.[iii]

How are food additives assessed for risk?

The World Health Organization (WHO), in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, are responsible for carrying out risk assessments of food additives. The risk assessment of food additives is carried out by the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).

Only food additives that have undergone a JECFA safety assessment and do not pose a health risk to consumers may be used. This applies regardless of whether the food additives come from a natural source or are synthetic. JECFA evaluations are based on scientific analysis of all relevant biochemical, toxicological and other data on a particular additive.

National authorities, either on the basis of the JECFA assessment or on the basis of a national assessment, may then authorise the use of food additives.

The starting point for determining whether a food additive can be used without harm is to establish the acceptable daily intake. The recommended daily intake is an estimate of the amount of additive in food or drinking water that can be safely consumed daily over a lifetime without adverse health effects.

Conclusions and Legislative Regulations E 450

Diphosphates (E 450) are regulated under European legislation[iv] and Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012 of 9 March 2012 laying down specifications for food additives listed in Annexes II and III to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council.

The use of magnesium dibasic diphosphate is regulated in Commission Regulation (EU) No 298/2014 of 21 March 2014.

Diphosphates may be used in processed cereal-based foods and baby foods for infants and young children (as defined in Directive 2006/125/EC), with a maximum level of 5 000 mg/kg, (expressed as P2 O5 ) only in biscuits and rusks.

 

 

Bibliographical references

[i] General Standard For Food Additives Codex Stan 192-1995 Adopted in 1995 Revision 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019

[ii] Re-evaluation of phosphoric acid-phosphates – di-, tri- and polyphosphates (E 338-341, E 343, E 450-452) as food additives and the safety of proposed extension of use, https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5674

[iii] Elena Orănescu, Food Additives-necessity and risk, SemnE Publishing House, 2005, Bucharest

[iv]https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/foods_system/main/index.cfm?event=substance.view&identifier=181

8 https://pixabay.com/ro/photos/aluat-buc%c4%83tar-re%c5%a3et%c4%83-italian%c4%83-943245/

9 https://pixabay.com/ro/photos/cupcakes-cioco “lat%c4%83-brio%c5%9f%c4%83-food-5116009/

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